Aircraft engine

The term aircraft engine, for the purposes of this article, refers to reciprocating and rotary internal combustion engines used in aircraft. Jet engines and turboprops are the other common aviation power plants; while operation differs substantially, the basics here apply to all types.
Engine design
Engines must be:
* lightweight, as a heavy engine increases the empty weight of the aircraft & reduces its payload.
* small and easily streamlined; large engines with substantial surface area, when installed, create too much drag, wasting fuel and reducing power output.
* powerful, to overcome the weight and drag of the aircraft.
* reliable, as losing power in an airplane is a substantially greater problem than an automobile engine seizing. Aircraft engines operate at temperature, pressure, and speed extremes, and therefore need to operate reliably and safely under all these conditions.
* repairable, to keep the cost of replacement down. Minor repairs are relatively inexpensive.
Types of Reciprocating Engines

In-line Engine
This type of engine has cylinders lined up in one row. It typically has an even number of cylinders, but there are instances of three- and five- cylinder engines. An in-line engine may be either air cooled or liquid cooled. If the engine crankshaft is located above the cylinders, it is called an inverted engine. Advantages of mounting the crankshaft this way include shorter landing gear and better pilot visibility. An in-line engine has a higher weight-to-horsepower ratio than other aircraft engines. A disadvantage of this type of engine is that the larger it is, the harder it is to cool. Due to this, airplanes that use an inline engine use a low- to medium-horsepower engine, and are typically used by light aircraft.
Fairchild L-440 air-cooled, six-cylinder, inverted, in-line engine used in Fairchild PT-19
Fairchild L-440 air-cooled, six-cylinder, inverted, in-line engine used in Fairchild PT-19
Opposed Engine
An opposed-type engine has two banks of cylinders opposite each other. The crankshaft is located in the center and is being driven from both sides. The engine is either air cooled or liquid cooled, but air cooled versions are used mostly in aviation. It can be mounted either vertically or horizontally. The advantage of a horizontally-opposed engine is that it allows better visibility and eliminates fluid lock typically found on bottom cylinders. An opposed engine also has a relative advantage in being mostly free of vibration. This is due to the fact that the pistons are located left and right of the crankshaft and act as balance weights for each other.
ULPower UL260ihorizontally-opposed,air-cooled, aero engine.
ULPower UL260i
air-cooled, aero engine.
V-Type Engine
Cylinders in this engine are arranged in two in-line banks, tilted 30-60 degrees apart from each other. The engine can be either air cooled or liquid cooled.
[edit] Radial Engine
This type of engine has a row of cylinders arranged in a circle around a crankcase located in the middle. The combination of cylinders must be an odd number in each row and may contain more than one row. The odd number of cylinders allows for every other cylinder to be on a power stroke, allowing for smooth operation. The power output is anywhere from 100 to 3,800 HP.
Further information: Radial engine
Radial engine of a biplane
Radial engine of a biplane
Unlike automobile engines, aircraft engines run at high power settings for extended periods of time. In general, the engine runs at maximum power for a few minutes during taking off, then power is slightly reduced for climb, and then spends the majority of its time at a cruise setting—typically 65% to 75% of full power. In contrast, a car engine might spend 20% of its time at 65% power accelerating, followed by 80% of its time at 20% power while cruising.
The power of an internal combustion reciprocating or turbine aircraft engine is rated in units of power delivered to the propeller (typically horsepower) which is torque multiplied by crankshaft revolutions per minute (RPM). The propeller converts the engine power to thrust horsepower or thp in which the thrust is a function of the blade pitch of the propeller relative to the velocity of the aircraft.
Jet engines are rated in terms of thrust.
The design of aircraft engines tends to favor reliability over performance. It took many years before the reliability was established to fly over the Atlantic or the Pacific Ocean. Engine failure at all stages in flight is a part of flight lessons for student pilots.[2] Forced landings without power are practiced extensively over rural areas until the new pilot is proficient enough to handle such a situation during a solo flight.
Long engine operation times and high power settings, combined with the requirement for high-reliability means that engines must be constructed to support this type of operation with ease. The engine, as well as the aircraft, needs to be lifted into the air, meaning it has to overcome lots of weight. The thrust to weight ratio is one of the most important characteristics for an aircraft engine. A typical 250 hp engine weighs just 15% of the total aircraft weight when installed into a 3000 lb (1,400 kg) aircraft.
Aircraft engines also tend to use the simplest parts and include two sets of anything needed for reliability, including ignition system (spark plugs and magnetos) and fuel pumps. Independence of function lessens the likelihood of a single malfunction causing an entire engine to fail. Thus magnetos are used because they do not rely on a battery. Two magnetos with two spark plugs per cylinder are used in certified piston engines so that the pilot can switch off a faulty magneto and continue the flight on the other— dual spark plugs also provide improved combustion efficiency. Similarly,for redundancy, a mechanical engine-driven fuel pump is often backed-up by an electric one.
Another difference between cars and aircraft is that the aircraft spend the vast majority of their time travelling at high speed. This allows an aircraft engine to be air cooled, as opposed to requiring a radiator. A few notable piston engines of the past, however, such as the Rolls-Royce Merlin series have employed liquid cooling, which, though efficient, added an extra level and complexity and risk in that receiving an enemy bullet to the cooling system in combat could cause coolant loss and engine seizure. In the absence of a radiator, aircraft engines can boast lower weight and less complexity. The amount of air flow an engine receives is usually carefully designed according to expected speed and altitude of the aircraft in order to maintain the engine at the optimal temperature. Just like overheating, too much cooling can be a bad thing for an engine as well. Some aircraft employ controls that allow a pilot to manually adjust the airflow into the engine compartment.
Aircraft operate at higher altitudes where the air is less dense than at ground level. As engines need oxygen to burn fuel, a forced induction system such as turbocharger or supercharger is especially appropriate for aircraft use. This does bring along the usual drawbacks of additional cost, weight and complexity.
Multi-engine debate
While some countries require twin-engined airplanes for commercial passenger transport, many, such as Canada, Australia, and the United States, allow the use of single-engine aircraft for some commercial services, including charter and sometimes scheduled commuter airline flights (the latter typically use turbine- rather than piston-powered singles).
A second engine adds redundancy so that the aircraft can stay in the air (or at least, descend more slowly) if one engine fails, providing an important safety margin during cruise flight over water or mountainous terrain; however, an engine failure on a twin-engine piston aircraft can also cause serious handling difficulties, especially right after takeoff, due to asymmetrical thrust.
A study of accidents in Australian air charter operations from 1986 to 1996 found that the overall fatal accident rate per hour for multi-engine aircraft was more than triple that for single-engine aircraft, though it did not isolate the accidents specifically caused by engine failure and the multi-engine aircraft did not fly under identical conditions.[3] According to the U.S. Air Safety Foundation, when an engine failure leads to an incident (e.g. some damage or injuries), it has a 10% chance of causing fatalities in a single-engine aircraft, but a 50% chance in a twin.[4]
This higher percentage of fatalities in a twin is likely due to the fact that they are designed for higher speed and higher performance, generally compromising low speed handling while increasing stall speed.
At one time all engine designs were new and there was no particular difference in design between aircraft and automobile engines. This changed by the start of World War I, however, when a particular class of air-cooled rotary engines became popular. These had a short lifespan, but by the 1920s a large number of engine designs were moving to the similar radial engine design. This combined air-cooled simplicity with large displacements and they were among the most powerful small engines in the world.
Both the rotary and radial engine have the drawback of a very large frontal area (see drag equation). As aircraft increased in speed and demanded better streamlining, designers turned to water-cooled inline engines. Throughout WWII the two designs were generally similar in terms of power and overall performance but some mature-design radials tended to be more reliable. After the war, in the USA, the water-cooled designs rapidly disappeared.
For the smaller application, notably in general aviation, a hybrid design in the form an air-cooled inline, almost always 4 or 6 cylinders horizontally opposed, is most common. These combine small frontal area with air-cooled simplicity, although they required careful installation in order to be effectively cooled, notably the rearmost cylinders. To make repairs practical, each cylinder is individually replaceable, as are each of the accessories (pumps, generator and magnetos).
Aircraft piston engines are typically designed to run on Avgas. Currently the most common Avgas is 100LL, which refers to the octane rating (100 octane) and the Tetraethyl lead (LL = Low Lead). All aviation fuel is produced to stringent quality standards (to avoid fuel-related engine failures), and 100LL has a higher octane rating compared to automotive gasoline, allowing a higher compression ratio and thus more power out of an engine with the same Engine displacement. 100LL uses Tetraethyl lead (TEL) to achieve these high octane ratings, a practice banned in automobile fuel. The shrinking supply of TEL, and the possibility of environmental legislation banning its use, has made a search for replacement fuels for General aviation aircraft a priority for pilot's organizations.[5].
New designs
Economics of new designs
Throughout most of the history of aircraft engine design, they tended to be more advanced than their automobile counterparts. High-strength aluminum alloys were used in these engines decades before they became common in cars. Likewise, those engines adopted fuel injection instead of carburetion quite early. Similarly, overhead cams were introduced, while automobile engines continued to use pushrods.
Today the piston-engine aviation market is so small that there is essentially no commercial money for new design work. Most aviation engines flying are based on a design from the 1960s, or before, using original materials, tooling and parts. Meanwhile the financial power of the automobile industry has continued improvement. A new car design is likely to use an engine designed no more than a few years ago, built with the latest alloys and advanced electronic engine controls. Modern car engines require no maintenance at all (other than adding fuel and oil) for over 100,000 km, aircraft engines are now, in comparison and paradoxically, rather heavy, dirty and unreliable.
Much of the innovation (and most newly constructed planes flying) in the past two decades in private aviation has been in ultralights and homebuilt aircraft, and so has innovation in powerplants. Rotax, amongst others, has introduced a number of new small production engine designs for this type of craft. The smallest of these mostly use two-stroke designs, but the larger models are four-strokes. For the reasons discussed above, some hobbyists and experimenters prefer to adapt automotive engines for their home-built aircraft, instead of using certified aircraft engines.
Over the history of the development of aircraft engines, the Otto cycle, that is, conventional gasoline powered, reciprocating-piston engines have been by far the most common type. That is not because they are the best but simply because they were there first and type-certification of new designs is an expensive, time-consuming process.
Powerplant from a Schleicher ASH 26e self-launching motor glider, removed from the glider and mounted on a test stand for maintenance at the Alexander Schleicher GmbH & Co in Poppenhausen, Germany. Counter-clockwise from top left: propeller hub, mast with belt guide, radiator, Wankel engine, muffler shroud.
Powerplant from a Schleicher ASH 26e self-launching motor glider, removed from the glider and mounted on a test stand for maintenance at the Alexander Schleicher GmbH & Co in Poppenhausen, Germany. Counter-clockwise from top left: propeller hub, mast with belt guide, radiator, Wankel engine, muffler shroud.
Wankel engine
Wankel engine
Another promising design for aircraft use was the Wankel rotary engine. The Wankel engine is about one half the weight and size of a traditional four stroke cycle piston engine of equal power output, and much lower in complexity. In an aircraft application, the power to weight ratio is very important, making the Wankel engine a good choice. Because the engine is typically constructed with an aluminium housing and a steel rotor, and aluminium expands more than steel when heated, unlike a piston engine, a Wankel engine will not seize when overheated. This is an important safety factor for aeronautical use. Considerable development of these designs started after World War II, but at the time the aircraft industry favored the use of turbine engines. It was believed that turbojet or turboprop engines, could power all aircraft, from the largest to smallest designs. The Wankel engine did not find many applications in aircraft, but was used by Mazda in a popular line of sports cars. Recently, the Wankel engine has been developed for use in motor gliders where the small size, light weight, and low vibration are especially important.[6]
Wankel engines are becoming increasingly popular in homebuilt experimental aircraft, due to a number of factors. Most are Mazda 12A and 13B engines, removed from automobiles and converted to aviation use. This is a very cost-effective alternative to certified aircraft engines, providing engines ranging from 100 to 300 horsepower at a fraction of the cost of traditional engines. These conversions first took place in the early 1970s, and with hundreds or even thousands of these engines mounted on aircraft, as of 10 December 2006 the National Transportation Safety Board has only 7 reports of incidents involving aircraft with Mazda engines, and none of these is of a failure due to design or manufacturing flaws. During the same time frame, they have reports of several thousand reports of broken crankshafts and connecting rods, failed pistons and incidents caused by other components which are not found in the Wankel engines. Rotary engine enthusiasts refer to piston aircraft engines as "Reciprosaurs," and point out that their designs are essentially unchanged since the 1930s, with only minor differences in manufacturing processes and variation in engine displacement.
Peter Garrison, contributing editor for Flying magazine, has said that "the most promising engine for aviation use is the Mazda rotary." Garrison lost an airplane which he had designed and built (and missed death literally by inches), when a piston-powered plane had engine failure and crashed into Garrison's plane, which was waiting to take off.
Diesel engine
Aircraft diesel engine
The diesel engine is another engine design that has been examined for aviation use. In general diesel engines are more reliable and much better suited to running for long periods of time at medium power settings—this is why they are widely used in trucks for instance. Several attempts to produce diesel aircraft engines were made in the 1930s but, at the time, the alloys were not up to the task of handling the much higher compression ratios used in these designs. They generally had poor power-to-weight ratios and were uncommon for that reason. Improvements in diesel technology in automobiles (leading to much better power-weight ratios), the diesel's much better fuel efficiency (particularly compared to the old designs currently being used in light aircraft) and the high relative taxation of gasoline compared to diesel in Europe have all seen a revival of interest in the concept. As of May 2004 one manufacturer, Thielert Aircraft Engines, is already selling certified diesel aircraft engines for light aircraft, and other companies have alternative designs under development. It remains to be seen whether these new designs will succeed in the marketplace but they potentially represent the biggest change in light aircraft engines in decades.

This page contains a very long flat list of aircraft types, roughly categorised. (See also List of aircraft)

* 1 Civilian Aircraft
o 1.1 Airliners
o 1.2 Cargo planes
o 1.3 General aviation
o 1.4 Agricultural aircraft
o 1.5 Business aircraft
o 1.6 Civilian Seaplane, Flying Boats, and Amphibious Aircraft
o 1.7 Civilian Helicopters
o 1.8 Sailplanes
o 1.9 Civil Research Aircraft, Prototypes and Specials
* 2 Military Aircraft
o 2.1 Bombers, Strike, Ground attack, gunships
o 2.2 Patrol, Anti-Submarine and Electronic Warfare aircraft
o 2.3 Military transports, tankers, and utility
o 2.4 Reconnaissance aircraft
o 2.5 Close air support/Counterinsurgency
o 2.6 Fighter aircraft, nightfighters and heavy fighters
o 2.7 Military Trainers
o 2.8 Military Helicopters and autogyros
+ 2.8.1 Attack
+ 2.8.2 Utility
+ 2.8.3 Cargo
+ 2.8.4 Observation, Reconnaissance
+ 2.8.5 Anti-Submarine Warfare
o 2.9 Military Research Aircraft, Prototypes and Specials
Civilian Aircraft
* Airline Pics – hundreds of photos of aircraft around the world
(See also List of civil aircraft)
[edit] Airliners
Jets and Props (Note: Turboprops currently listed under Jets)
See also List of airliners by seat capacity and List of airliners by Maximum Takeoff Weight
Civil Airliners
Aérospatiale/Aeritalia Jet BAC/Aérospatiale Concorde - ATR-42 - ATR-72
Airbus Jet Airbus A300 - Airbus A310 - Airbus A318 - Airbus A319 - Airbus A320 - Airbus A321 - Airbus A330 - Airbus A340 - Airbus A350 XWB - Airbus A380
Airspeed Prop AS.57 Ambassador
Antonov Jet Antonov An-124 - Antonov An-225
Prop Antonov An-24
ATR Prop ATR 42 - ATR 72
Avro Jet Avro Jetliner
Prop Avro Lancastrian - Avro York
BAC Jet BAC 1-11 (One-Eleven) - BAC/Aerospatiale Concorde
BAe Jet BAe 146
Prop BAe Jetstream
Boeing Jet Boeing 707 - Boeing 717 - Boeing 720 - Boeing 727 - Boeing 737 - Boeing 747 - Boeing 757 - Boeing 767 - Boeing 777 - Boeing 787
Prop Boeing 40A - Boeing 80 - Boeing 221 Monomail - Boeing 247 - Boeing 307 Stratoliner - Boeing 314 Clipper - Boeing 377 Stratocruiser
Bombardier Aerospace Jet Bombardier CRJ-100 - Bombardier CRJ-200 - Bombardier CRJ-700 - Bombardier CRJ-900 - Bombardier CRJ-1000
Prop Dash 8 (Q Series)
Bristol Prop Bristol Britannia
Canadair Jet CL-44
Cessna Prop Cessna 208
(Consolidated-Vultee) Jet Convair 540 - Convair 660 - Convair 880 - Convair 990
Prop Convair 240 - Convair 340
de Havilland Jet de Havilland Comet
Prop De Havilland Dove - De Havilland Dragon Rapide - De Havilland Express - de Havilland Flamingo - de Havilland Heron
de Havilland Canada Prop
DHC-2 - DHC-3 - DHC-4 - DHC-6 - Dash 7 - Dash 8
Dornier Prop Dornier 228
Douglas Jet Douglas DC-8 - Douglas DC-9 Douglas DC-10
Prop Douglas DC-2 - Douglas DC-3 - Douglas DC-4 - Douglas DC-5 - Douglas DC-6 - Douglas DC-7
EMBRAER Jet Embraer ERJ 135 - Embraer ERJ 140 - Embraer ERJ 145 - Embraer 170 - Embraer 175 - Embraer 190 - Embraer 195
Prop Embraer EMB 110 Bandeirante - Embraer EMB 120 Brasilia - Embraer EMB 121 Xingu - Embraer/FMA CBA 123 Vector
Fokker Jet Fokker F28 Fellowship - Fokker 70 - Fokker F100
Prop F27 Friendship - Fokker F50
Ford Motor Company Prop Ford Trimotor
Handley Page Jet HPR-7 Herald
Prop Handley Page W.8 - Handley Page Hannibal - Handley Page Hermes
Hawker Siddeley Jet Hawker Siddeley Trident - HS748
Ilyushin Jet Ilyushin Il-62 - Ilyushin Il-76 - Ilyushin Il-86 - Ilyushin Il-96
Prop Ilyushin Il-18
Junkers Prop Junkers F.13 - Junkers G.38 - Junkers Ju 52 - Junkers Ju 90
Kawasaki Piston Kawasaki Ki-56
Lockheed Jet Lockheed L-188 Electra - Lockheed L-1011 Tristar
Prop Lockheed Constellation
McDonnell Douglas Jet McDonnell Douglas DC-10 - McDonnell Douglas MD-11 - McDonnell Douglas MD-80 - McDonnell Douglas MD-90
SAAB Prop SAAB 340 Saab 2000
Saunders-Roe Prop Saunders-Roe Princess
Shanghai Jet Shanghai Y-10
Sud Aviation Jet Sud Aviation Caravelle
Sud-Est Prop Sud-Est Armagnac
Tupolev Jet Tupolev Tu-104 - Tupolev Tu-124 - Tupolev Tu-134 - Tupolev Tu-144 - Tupolev Tu-154 - Tupolev Tu-204 - Tupolev Tu-214
Prop Tupolev Tu-114
Vickers Jet Vickers VC-10 - Vickers Viscount
Prop Vickers Vanguard
Viking Air Prop DHC-6
Yakovlev Jet Yakovlev Yak-40 - Yakovlev Yak-42
[edit] Cargo planes
for detailed information see Cargo aircraft
* Airbus Beluga - Antonov An-72 - Bristol Freighter - Carvair - Mini Guppy - Short Skyvan - Super Guppy - Boeing 747 LCF
General aviation
* Aircoupe
* ATC Aircraft Technology Center
* American Aviation AA-1 Yankee series
* Cessna
o Cessna 150 - Cessna 152 - Cessna 170 - Cessna 172 (Skyhawk) - Cessna 175(Skylark) - Cessna 182 (Skylane)
* Cirrus Design
o Cirrus SR20 - Cirrus SR22
* de Havilland
o de Havilland DH.88 Comet Race plane
* Fieseler
o Fieseler Fi 2 Sports plane
o Fieseler Fi 5 Sports plane
* Grumman American AA-1 Yankee series
* Hawker HS-125
* HFB-320 Hansa Jet
* Lockheed L-10 Electra
* Lockheed Vega
* Messerschmitt Bf 108
* Miles Whitney Straight
* Mooney
o Mooney M20
* Piper
o Piper Aztec/Apache - Piper Cherokee - Piper Cherokee Six - Piper Family Cruiser - Piper Vagabond
* Sequoia Falco Sports plane
* Sky Arrow Tandem, rear propeller, high wing, carbon fibre aircraft
* Pitts Special
Agricultural aircraft
* Aero Boero 260AG
* Agricultural aircraft
* Andrews A1
* Bennett Airtruck
* Cessna 188
* Embraer EMB 202 Ipanema
* Grumman Ag Cat
* Pacific Aerospace
o PAC 750XL
o PAC Cresco
o PAC Fletcher
* Transavia Airtruck
Business aircraft
* Gulfstream Aerospace
* Boeing/General Electric
* Dassault
* Embraer
o Embraer Lineage 1000
o Embraer Legacy 600
o Embraer Phenom 100
o Embraer Phenom 300
* Boeing Business Jet
* Bombardier
o Bombardier Global 5000 - Bombardier Global Express - Bombardier Global Express XRS
o Challenger 300 - Challenger 604 - Challenger 800
o Learjet 23 - Learjet 24 - Learjet 25
o Learjet 30 - Learjet 31 - Learjet 35 - Learjet 36
o Learjet 40 - Learjet 45 - Learjet 45
o Learjet 55 - Learjet 60
* Cessna
Contents * 1 Engine design * 2 Types of Reciprocating Engines o 2.1 In-line Engine o 2.2 Opposed Engine o 2.3 V-Type Engine o 2.4 Radial Engine * 3 Power * 4 Reliability o 4.1 Multi-engine debate * 5 Size * 6 Repairability * 7 Fuel * 8 New designs o 8.1 Economics of new designs o 8.2 Wankel engine o 8.3 Diesel engine * 9 References * 10 See also * 11 External links
o Cessna Citation Bravo - Cessna Citation CJ1 - Cessna Citation CJ2 - Cessna Citation CJ3
o Cessna Citation Encore - Cessna Citation Excel - Cessna Citation Mustang - Cessna Citation Sovereign - Cessna Citation X
* Lockheed JetStar
* Piaggio Aero
o Piaggio Avanti
Civilian Seaplane, Flying Boats, and Amphibious Aircraft
(see List of flying boats and seaplanes)
Civilian Helicopters
* Bell 212
* Eurocopter Dauphin
* Eurocopter EC 225
See List of Gliders
[edit] Civil Research Aircraft, Prototypes and Specials
Civil Aircraft Research, Prototypes and Specials
Research & Prototypes
Aerosonde - Bell X-1 - Bell X-2 - Bell X-5 - Bell XV-15 - Boeing X-40 - Boeing X-43 - Bristol Brabazon - Coanda-1910 - Fairchild-Dornier 728 - Douglas X-3 Stiletto - Gossamer Albatross - Edgley Optica - Grumman X-29 - Lippisch Ente - LLRV - Lockheed WP-3D Orion - Lockheed Martin X-33 - Lockheed Martin X-35
Martin-Marietta X-24 - Miles M.52 - McDonnell Douglas X-36 - North American X-15 - Northrop X-4 Bantam -Opel RAK.1 - Orbital Sciences X-34 - Rockwell-MBB X-31 - Rutan Voyager - Shuttle Carrier Aircraft - Sikorsky S-72 - Sky Arrow - SpaceShipOne - Spirit of St. Louis - Williams X-Jet - Wright Flyer - X-38 Crew Return Vehicle - X-44 MANTA
Currently in development
Boeing 787 - Boeing 747-8 - Airbus A350 - Sukhoi Superjet 100
Abandoned/Cancelled Projects
Boeing 2707 - Boeing Sonic Cruiser - Boeing 747x - Bristol 223 - Bristol Brabazon - Bombardier C-Series - Convair Model 37 - Fairchild-Dornier 528 - Fairchild-Dornier 928 - Lockheed L-2000 - Lockheed Martin X-33 and VentureStar - Sud Aviation Super-Caravelle - Tupolev Tu-70
[edit] Military Aircraft
(See also List of military aircraft)
[edit] Bombers, Strike, Ground attack, gunships
Bombers, Strike, Ground attack, gunships
A-1 Skyraider - A-2 Savage - A-12 Shrike - AC-47 Spooky - AC-119 gunship - Aichi B7A - Aichi D3A - Aichi M6A - Amiot 143M - Amiot 354 - Armstrong Whitworth Whitley - Avro Lancaster - Avro Lincoln - Avro Manchester
B-10 - B-17 Flying Fortress - B-18 Bolo - B-24 Liberator - B-25 Mitchell - B-26 Marauder - B-29 Superfortress - B-32 Dominator - Convair B-36 - XB-42 Mixmaster - Breguet 14 - Bristol Beaufort - Bristol Blenheim - Bristol Bombay - Bristol Buckingham - Curtiss Falcon
De Havilland Mosquito - Dornier Do 11 - Dornier Do 13 - Dornier Do 23 - Dornier Do 17 - Dornier Do 217 - Douglas Boston
Fairey Albacore - Fairey Barracuda - Fairey Battle - Fairey Swordfish - Fairey Fox - Gotha G.I
Handley Page O/100 - Handley Page O/400 - Handley Page V/1500 - Handley Page Hampden - Handley Page Halifax - Hawker Hart - Hawker Hind - Heinkel He 111 - Heinkel He 177 - Heinkel He 274 - Heinkel He 277 - Henschel Hs 123 - Henschel Hs 129
IAR 93 - Ilyushin Il-2 - Ilyushin Il-4 - Ilyushin Il-10 - Junkers Ju 87 Stuka - Junkers Ju 88 - Junkers Ju 188 - Junkers Ju 388
LWS-4 ?ubr - Martin AM Mauler - Martin B-10 - Mitsubishi G4M - Nakajima B5N - Nakajima B6N
Petlyakov Pe-2 - PZL.23 Kara? - PZL.37 ?o?
Savoia-Marchetti SM.79 - SB2C Helldiver - SBD Dauntless - Short Stirling - Sukhoi Su-2 - TBD Devastator - TB2D Skypirate - TBF Avenger - TBY Sea Wolf - Tupolev Tu-4
Vickers Vimy - Vickers Wellesley - Vickers Wellington - Yokosuka D4Y
Jet- and rocket-propelled
A-3 Skywarrior - A-4 Skyhawk - A-5 Vigilante - A-6 Intruder - A-7 Corsair II - A-10 Thunderbolt II - AC-130 gunship - Arado Ar 234 - AV-8 Harrier II - Avro Vulcan
BAC TSR-2 - B-1 Lancer - B-2 Spirit - B-45 Tornado - B-47 Stratojet - B-58 Hustler - B-52 Stratofortress - B-66 Destroyer - Blackburn Buccaneer
English Electric Canberra - F-15E Strike Eagle - F-117 Nighthawk - General Dynamics F-111 Aardvark - Handley Page Victor - Ilyushin Il-28 - Martin XB-51
Panavia Tornado (RAF Tornado GR1 - RAF Tornado GR4) - SEPECAT Jaguar - Sukhoi Su-24 - Sukhoi Su-25
Tupolev Tu-16 - Tupolev Tu-22 - Tupolev Tu-22M - Tupolev Tu-160 - Tupolev Tu-95 - Vickers Valiant - Yokosuka Ohka
* See also Light bomber -- V bomber -- Torpedo bomber -- Dive bomber
Patrol, Anti-Submarine and Electronic Warfare aircraft
* Avro Shackleton
* BAe Nimrod
* Blohm & Voss BV 138
* Blohm + Voss BV 142
* Boeing OC-135 Open Skies
* Boeing Multimission Maritime Aircraft
* E-1 Tracer
* E-2 Hawkeye
* E-3 Sentry
* E-4B
* E-6 Mercury
* E-8 Joint STARS
* E-10 MC2A
* EA-6 Prowler
* EF-111A Raven
* Embraer R-99A
* Embraer R-99B
* Embraer P-99
* ES-3 Shadow
* Consolidated PBY Catalina
* Dornier Do 18
* Dornier Do 24
* Focke-Wulf Fw 200
* Grumman G-44 "Widgeon"
* Grumman G-21 "Goose"
* Grumman HU-16 "Albatross"
* Heinkel He 115
* Junkers Ju 290
* Kawanishi H6K
* Kawanishi H8K
* Lockheed P-7
* P-2 Neptune
* P-3 Orion
* Lockheed EP-3E
* P4M Mercator
* P5M Marlin
* P6M SeaMaster - strategic bomber, minelaying, reconnaissance
* S-2 Tracker
* S-3 Viking
* Saro Lerwick
* Saro London
* Short Sunderland
* Supermarine Stranraer
* Supermarine Walrus
* Vickers Warwick
Military transports, tankers, and utility
For detailed information see: Military transport aircraft
* Airbus A310 MRTT
* Airbus A330 MRTT
* Airbus A400M
* Antonov An-22
* Antonov An-72
* Antonov An-124
* Antonov An-225
* Armstrong Whitworth Albemarle
* Avro Lancastrian
* Avro York
* Bloch MB-81
* Blohm + Voss BV 142
* Boeing C-135
* Bristol Britannia
* Bristol Buckingham
* C-1 Trader
* C-2 Greyhound
* C-5 Galaxy
* C-7 Caribou
* C-9 Skytrain II
* C-12 Huron
* C-17 Globemaster III
* C-20 Gulfstream III
* C-21 Learjet
* C-40 Clipper
* C-46 Commando
* C-47 Skytrooper
* C-54 Skymaster
* C-56 Lodestar
* C-87 Liberator Express
* C-97 Stratofreighter
* XC-99 (Convair)
* C-123 Provider
* C-124 Globemaster II
* C-130 Hercules
* C-133 Cargomaster
* C-141 Starlifter
* de Havilland Comet
* DFS 230
* Farman F 402
* Handley Page Hastings
* HU-16 Albatross
* KC-10 Extender
* KC-135 Stratotanker
* Junkers Ju 52
* Junkers Ju 390
* Lockheed L-1011 Tristar
* Lockheed R6V Constitution
* Messerschmitt Me 321
* Messerschmitt Me 323
* Miles Martinet
* R3Y Tradewind (Convair) flying boat
* ShinMaywa US-1
* Short Belfast
* Transall C-160
* VC-25A, "Air Force One"
* Vickers VC-10
* Vickers Warwick
Reconnaissance aircraft
* Arado Ar 196
* Blohm & Voss Ha 139
* Blohm & Voss BV 141
* Blohm + Voss BV 142
* Fairey Seafox
* Focke-Wulf Fw 189
* Henschel Hs 126
* Lockheed U-2
* Mitsubishi F1M
* OS2U Kingfisher
* Rumpler Taube
* SR-71 Blackbird
* Boeing RC-135
* RF-84 Thunderflash
Close air support/Counterinsurgency
* A-10 Thunderbolt II
* AC-130 gunship
* Fieseler Fi 156 Storch
* IA 58 Pucará
* O-1 Bird Dog
* O-2 Skymaster
* Rockwell OV-10B Bronco
* Soko J-22 Orao
* T-42 Cochise
* Westland Lysander
Fighter aircraft, nightfighters and heavy fighters
Fighter aircraft, nightfighters and heavy fighters
Albatros D.III - AMX International AMX - Arado Ar 68 - Arado Ar 80 - Arado Ar 240 - Arsenal VG-33 - Avia B-534 - Avia S-199 - Blackburn Roc - Blackburn Skua - Blériot S.510 - Bloch MB.151 - Boulton Paul Defiant - Brewster F2A - Bristol Beaufighter - Bristol Bulldog - Bristol F2B - CAC Boomerang - Caudron C.714 - Curtiss P-36 - Curtiss P-40
De Havilland Hornet - De Havilland Mosquito - Dewoitine D.510 - Dewoitine D.520 - Dornier Do 335 - Douglas A-20 Havoc - F4F Wildcat - F6F Hellcat - F7F Tigercat - F8F Bearcat - Fairey Firefly - Fairey Fulmar - Fiat CR.32 - Fiat CR.42 - Fiat G.50 - Focke-Wulf Fw 190 - Focke-Wulf Ta 152 - Focke-Wulf Ta 154 - Fokker D.VII - Fokker D.VIII - Fokker D.XXI - Fokker Dr.I - Fokker G.I - F4U Corsair - Gloster Gladiator
Hawker Fury - Hawker Hurricane - Hawker Typhoon - Hawker Sea Fury - Hawker Tempest - Heinkel He 51 - Heinkel He 100 - Heinkel He 112 - Heinkel He 219 - Hispano Aviacion Ha 1112
I-15 - I-16 - IAR 80 - Kawanishi N1K-J - Kawasaki Ki-61 - Kawasaki Ki-100 - Lavochkin-Gorbunov-Goudkov LaGG-1 - Lavochkin-Gorbunov-Goudkov LaGG-3 - Lavochkin La-5 - Lavochkin La-7
Macchi C.200 - Macchi C.202 - Macchi C.205 - Mitsubishi A5M - Mitsubish A6M - Mitsubishi A7M - Mitsubishi J2M - Messerschmitt Bf 109 - Messerschmitt Bf 110 - Messerschmitt Me 210 - Messerschmitt Me 410 - Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-1 - Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-3 - Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-7 - Morane-Saulnier M.S.406 - Nakajima Ki-43 - Nakajima Ki-44 - Nakajima Ki-84
P-26 Peashooter - P-36 Hawk - P-38 Lightning - P-39 Airacobra -P-40 - P-47 Thunderbolt - P-51 Mustang - P-61 Black Widow - P-63 Kingcobra - Polikarpov I-15 - Polikarpov I-16 - PZL P.7 - PZL P.11 - PZL P.24
Sopwith Camel - Sopwith Pup - Sopwith Snipe - Sopwith Triplane - Supermarine Seafire - Supermarine Spitfire - Westland Welkin - Westland Whirlwind - Yakovlev Yak-1 - Yakovlev Yak-3 - Yakovlev Yak-7 - Yakovlev Yak-9
Jet- and rocket-propelled
Aeritalia G.91 - AIDC Ching-kuo - Atlas Cheetah - Dassault Étendard IV - Dassault Mirage III - Dassault Mirage V - Dassault Mirage F.1 - Dassault Mirage 2000 - Dassault Rafale - Dassault Super Étendard - de Havilland Sea Vixen - de Havilland Vampire - de Havilland Venom - ENAER Pantera - English Electric Lightning - Eurofighter Typhoon
F-3 Demon - F-4 Phantom II - F-5 Freedom Fighter - F-8 Crusader - F-10 Skyknight - F-11 Tiger - F-14 Tomcat - F-15 Eagle - F-16 Fighting Falcon - F/A-18 Hornet (CF-18 Hornet) - F-20 Tigershark - F-22 Raptor - YF-23 Black Widow II - F-35 Lightning II - F-80 Shooting Star - F-84 Thunderjet - F-86 Sabre - F-89 Scorpion - F-94 Starfire - F-97 Starfire - F-100 Super Sabre - F-101 Voodoo - F-102 Delta Dagger - F-104 Starfighter - F-105 Thunderchief - F-106 Delta Dart - F-110 Spectre - F2H Banshee - F2Y Sea Dart - F3D Skyknight - F3H Demon - F4D Skyray - F9F Panther\F9F Cougar - FH Phantom - FJ Fury - FR Fireball
Gloster Javelin - Gloster Meteor - HAL Tejas - Hawker Siddeley Harrier - Hawker Hunter - Heinkel He 162 - Helwan HA-300 - IAI Kfir - IAI Nesher - Shenyang J-5 - Shenyang J-6 - Chengdu J-7 - Shenyang J-8 - Chengdu J-9 - Chengdu J-10
Messerschmitt Me 163 - Messerschmitt Me 262 - Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-9 - Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-13 - Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-15 - Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-17 - Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-19 - Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-21 - Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-23 - Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-25 - Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-27 - Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-29 - Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-31 - Mitsubishi F-1 - Mitsubishi F-2
Nanchang Q-5 - P-59 Airacomet - P-80 Shooting Star - Panavia Tornado\RAF Tornado F3 - Saab Lansen - Saab Gripen - Saab Viggen - Supermarine Scimitar - Sukhoi Su-7 - Sukhoi Su-27 - Sukhoi Su-30 - Sukhoi Su-33
* See also Interceptor aircraft -- Heavy fighter -- Night fighter -- Day fighter
Military Trainers
* Aermacchi MB-326
*Aermacchi SF-260
* Aero L-39
* EADS Mako/High Energy Advanced Trainer
* Hongdu JL-8
* HAL HJT-36
* HAL Kiran
* IA 63 Pampa
* IAR 99
* Ikarus Aero 2
* Miles Magister
* Miles Master
* Mitsubishi T-2
* Pacific Aerospace CT/4
* PZL Mielec TS-11
* Short Tucano
* SIAI Marchetti
* Stearman
* T-1A Jayhawk
* T-2 Buckeye
* T-6 Texan
* T-6 Texan II
* T-33
* T-37
* T-38 Talon
* T-41 Mescalero
* T-42 Cochise
* UTVA Aero 3
* UTVA 75
* Yokosuka MXY8
Military Helicopters and autogyros
* AH-1 Cobra
* AH-64 Apache
* Eurocopter Tiger
* Westland Lynx
* UH-60 Blackhawk
* Aérospatiale Alouette III
* CH-3 Sea King
* CH-37 Mojave
* CH-46 Sea Knight
* CH-47 Chinook
* CH-53D Sea Stallion
* CH-53E Super Stallion
* Aérospatiale Puma
Observation, Reconnaissance
* OH-58 Kiowa
[edit] Anti-Submarine Warfare
* SH-60B Seahawk
* SH-60F Seahawk

* Agusta A109
* Agusta A129 Mangusta
* AgustaWestland EH101
* Atlas Oryx
* Denel AH-2 Rooivalk
* Eurocopter Colibri
* Eurocopter Cougar
* Eurocopter Dauphin
* Eurocopter Panther
* HAL Dhruv
* HH-60H Seahawk
* HH-60J Jayhawk
* HH-65 Dolphin
* Kayaba Ka-1
* MBB/Kawasaki BK 117
* MH-53E Sea Dragon
* MH-60R Seahawk
* MH-60S Knighthawk
* Mil Mi-24
* NHI NH90
* OH-6
* SH-2 Seasprite
* Kamov
o Kamov Ka-25
o Kamov Ka-50
* RAH-66 Comanche
* UH-1 Iroquois
o CH-146 Griffon
* UH-19 Chickasaw
* V-22 Osprey
* YH-32 Hornet
* Westland Sea King
* Westland Wasp
* Westland Wessex
* Westland Whirlwind
Military Research Aircraft, Prototypes and Specials
Military Research Aircraft, Prototypes and Specials
Research & Prototypes
Arado Ar 231 - Avro Arrow - Bachem Ba 349 - Beechcraft XA-38 Grizzly - BAC TSR-2 - Bell XP-52 - Bell XP-83 - Bisnovat 5 - Blohm und Voss BV 40 - Blohm und Voss BV 238 - Boeing X-40 - Boeing X-45 - Bristol 188 - Convair XC-99 - Convair YB-60 - Curtiss-Wright XF-87 Blackhawk - DAR-10 - Dassault Étendard II - Dassault Étendard VI - DFS 194 - DFS 228 - DFS 346 - Dornier Do 10
Douglas F5D Skylancer - Fairey FD-2 - Focke-Wulf Fw 187 - Fokker XA-7 - Future Offensive Air System - Gloster E.28/39 - Gotha Go 229 - Hawker P-1127 - Heinkel He 176 - Heinkel He 178 - Heinkel He 280 -Henschel Hs 132 - Hughes H-4 Hercules "Spruce Goose"
Junkers EF 61 - Junkers Ju 89 - Junkers Ju 287 - Junkers Ju 390 - Ky?sh? J7W - Lockheed YF-12 - Lockheed YP-24 - Martin XB-51 - McDonnell XF-85 Goblin - McDonnell XF-88 Voodoo - Messerschmitt Me 263 - Messerschmitt Me 264 - Mikoyan-Gurevich I-270 - Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-8 - Miles M-52 - Mitsubishi J8M
Nakajima J9Y Kikka - North American XB-70 Valkyrie - Northrop B-35 - Northrop YA-9 - Northrop YB-49 - Northrop YF-17 Cobra - OKB-1 EF 140 - PZL.38 Wilk - PZL.46 Sum - PZL.48 Lampart - PZL.54 Ry? - PZL.50 Jastrz?b - Republic XF-91 Thunderceptor - Ryan XF2R Dark Shark - Ryan XV-5 Vertifan - Saunders-Roe SR.A/1 - Saunders-Roe SR.53 - Tupolev Tu-75 - Tupolev Tu-80 - Tupolev Tu-85 - Tupolev Tu-91 - Yokosuka R2Y Keiun
UAVs and drones
EADS Barracuda - GNAT 750 - RQ-1 Predator - RQ-2 Pioneer - RQ-3 Dark Star - RQ-4 Global Hawk - RQ-5 Hunter - RQ-6 Outrider - RQ-7 Shadow - Sperwer - Polecat
Unfinished/Cancelled Projects
A-12 Avenger II - IAe Pulqui II - Miles M.52 - Mitsubishi Ki-202 - Nakajima G10N Fugaku - Nakajima Ki-115 - Nakajima Ki-116 - Nakajima Ki-201 - Saunders-Roe SR.177 - Silbervogel - X-20 Dyna-Soar - Yokosuka MXY9
v • d • e
Lists relating to aviation
General Timeline of aviation · Aircraft (manufacturers) · Aircraft engines (manufacturers) · Airports · Airlines
Military Air forces · Aircraft weapons · Missiles · Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) · Experimental aircraft
Accidents/incidents General · Military · Commercial (airliners) · Deaths
Records Airspeed · Distance · Altitude · Endurance · Most-produced aircraft


Main article: History of Los Angeles, California

The old city plaza, 1869
Los Angeles coastal area was first settled by the Tongva (or Gabrieleños) and Chumash Native American tribes hundreds of years ago. The first Europeans arrived in 1542 under João Cabrilho, a Portuguese explorer who claimed the area as the City of God for the Spanish Empire; he continued with his voyage and did not establish a settlement.[5] The next contact would not come until 227 years later, when Gaspar de Portola, along with Franciscan missionary Juan Crespí, reached the present site of Los Angeles on August 2, 1769. Crespi noted that the site had the potential to be developed into a large settlement.[6]
In 1771, Franciscan friar Junípero Serra built the Mission San Gabriel Arcangel near Whittier Narrows, in what is now called San Gabriel Valley.[7] In 1777, the new governor of California, Felipe de Neve, recommended to the viceroy of New Spain that the site noted by Juan Crespi be developed into a pueblo. The town was founded on September 4, 1781, by a group of 44 settlers and was named "El Pueblo de Nuestra Señora la Reina de los ángeles Del Río de Porciúncula" ("The Town of Our Lady the Queen of the Angels on the River Porciúncula").[8] These settlers were of Filipino, Native American, African, and Spanish ancestry, with two-thirds being mestizo or mulatto. A majority of the settlers had some African ancestry.[9] The settlement remained a small ranch town for decades, but by 1820 the population had increased to about 650 residents.[10] Today, the pueblo is commemorated in the historic district Olvera Street, the oldest part of Los Angeles.[11]
New Spain achieved its independence from the Spanish Empire in 1821, and the pueblo continued as a part of Mexico. Mexican rule ended during the Mexican-American War: Americans took control from the Californios after a series of battles, culminating on on January 13, 1847, with the signing of the Treaty of Cahuenga. Later, with the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo in 1848, the Mexican government formally ceded Alta California and other territories to the United States.

Los Angeles City Hall, shown here in 1931, was built in 1928 and was the tallest structure in the city until 1964, when height restrictions were removed
Railroads arrived when the Southern Pacific completed its line to Los Angeles in 1876.[12] Oil was discovered in 1892, and by 1923 Los Angeles was producing one-quarter of the world's petroleum.[13]
By 1900, the population had grown to more than 102,000 people,[14] putting pressure on the city's water supply.[15] 1913's completion of the Los Angeles Aqueduct, under the supervision of William Mulholland, assured the continued growth of the city. In 1915, Los Angeles began the annexation of dozens of neighboring communities without water supplies of their own.
In the 1920s, the motion picture and aviation industries flocked to Los Angeles. In 1932, with population surpassing one million,[16] the city hosted the Summer Olympics. This period also saw the arrival of exiles from the increasing pre-war tensions of Europe, including Thomas Mann, Fritz Lang, Bertolt Brecht, Arnold Schoenberg, and Lion Feuchtwanger.
World War II and the expansion of defense industries brought new growth and prosperity to the city. Thousands of African Americans migrated from Texas, Louisiana and Mississippi to work in these expanding fields. The state also succumbed to war fears, transporting most Japanese American residents from Los Angeles and other cities to distant internment camps for the duration of the war.
The post-war years saw an even greater boom, as urban sprawl expanded the city into the San Fernando Valley.[17] In 1969, Los Angeles became one of the birthplaces of the Internet, as the first ARPANET transmission was sent from UCLA to SRI in Menlo Park.[18]

Downtown Los Angeles saw heavy development during the 1990s. Shown here is the Subway Terminal Building, a historic station on the Pacific Electric Railway now home to residential lofts.
As in other major cities, long-unresolved racial problems erupted in the 1960s and 1970s. Los Angeles grappled with the Watts Riots in 1965, the high school walkout by Chicano students in 1968, and the 1970 Chicano Moratorium, all representative of racial strife within the city. Los Angeles was one of the cities to pass gay rights bills during the 1970s (1979 after years of pressure from prominent performing arts members), seeing how the earliest homophile organization, Mattachine, was formed there in 1950, and the first city where AIDS was discovered and focused upon during the 1980s.
Also in the 1980s, Los Angeles became the center of the heavy metal music scene, especially glam metal bands. In 1984, the city hosted the Summer Olympic Games for the second time. It became the most financially successful Olympics in history, and only the second Olympics to turn a profit — the other being the 1932 Summer Olympics, also held in Los Angeles.
During the remainder of the 1980s, Los Angeles was plagued by increasing gang violence and police corruption. Racial tensions erupted again in 1992 with the Rodney King controversy and the large-scale riots that followed the acquittal of his police attackers. In 1994, the 6.7 Northridge earthquake shook the city, causing $12.5 billion in damage and 72 deaths. [19]
Voters defeated efforts by the San Fernando Valley and Hollywood to secede from the city in 2002.[20]
Gentrification and urban redevelopment have occurred in many parts of the city, most notably Hollywood, Koreatown, Silver Lake, Echo Park and Downtown.[21] Gentrification has recently spilled into the eastern and southern portions of Los Angeles, with announcements of several billion-dollar residential high-rise and commercial center projects.

[edit] Geography
See also: Los Angeles Basin, Greater Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, California, Maps of Los Angeles, California, and List of California area codes

[edit] Topography
Los Angeles is irregularly shaped and covers a total area of 498.3 square miles (1,291 km²), comprising 469.1 square miles (1,214.9 km²) of land and 29.2 square miles (75.7 km²) of water. The city extends for 44 miles (71 km) longitudinally and for 29 miles (47 km) latitudinally. The perimeter of the city is 342 miles (550 km). It is the only major city in the United States bisected by a mountain range.

View of the Palos Verdes Peninsula with Los Angeles in the distance
The highest point in Los Angeles is Mount Lukens, also called Sister Elsie Peak. Located at the far reaches of the northeastern San Fernando Valley, it reaches a height of 5,080 ft (1,548 m). The major river is the Los Angeles River, which begins in the Canoga Park district of the city and is largely seasonal. The river is lined in concrete for almost its entire length as it flows through the city into nearby Vernon on its way to the Pacific Ocean.

[edit] Geology
Los Angeles is subject to earthquakes due to its location in the Pacific Ring of Fire. The geologic instability produces numerous fault lines both above and below ground, which altogether cause approximately 10,000 earthquakes every year.[22] One of the major fault lines is the San Andreas Fault. Located at the boundary between the Pacific Plate and the North American Plate, it is predicted to be the source of Southern California's next big earthquake.[23] Major earthquakes to have hit the Los Angeles area include the 1994 Northridge earthquake, the 1987 Whittier Narrows earthquake, the 1971 San Fernando earthquake near Sylmar, and the 1933 Long Beach earthquake. Nevertheless, all but a few quakes are of low intensity and are not felt.[24] Parts of the city are also vulnerable to Pacific Ocean tsunamis; harbor areas were damaged by waves from the Valdivia earthquake in 1960.[25]

[edit] Climate
The city is situated in a Mediterranean climate or Dry-Summer Subtropical zone (Köppen climate classification Csb on the coast, Csa inland), USDA Zones 8-11, experiencing mild, somewhat wet winters and warm to hot summers. The prevalent warm southerly airflow and the blocking effect of mountains to the north give the city a much warmer climate than would be expected. The average annual temperature is 18.86°C (around 66 °F)[26], much higher than some comparable coastal locations at the same distance from the equator elsewhere such as Cape Town. Breezes from the Pacific Ocean tend to keep the beach communities of the Los Angeles area cooler in summer and warmer in winter than those further inland; summer temperatures can sometimes be as much as 18 °F (10°C) warmer in the inland communities compared to that of the coastal communities. A few coastal "micro-climates" have never recorded a temperature below freezing. Coastal areas also see a phenomenon known as the "marine layer," a dense cloud cover caused by the proximity of the ocean that helps keep the temperatures cooler throughout the year. When the marine layer becomes more common and pervades farther inland during the months of May and June, it is called May Gray or June Gloom.[27]

Echo Park as seen with Palm Trees
Temperatures in the summer can exceed 90°F (32°C), but average summer daytime highs in downtown are 82°F (27°C), with overnight lows of 63°F (17°C). Winter daytime high temperatures reach around 65°F (18°C), on average, with overnight lows of 48°F (10°C) and during this season rain is common. The warmest month is August, followed by July and then September. This somewhat large case of seasonal lag is caused by the influence of the ocean and its latitude of 34° north.
The median temperature in January is 57°F (13°C) and 73°F (22°C) in August. The highest temperature recorded within city borders was 119.0°F (48.33°C) in Woodland Hills on July 22, 2006;[28] the lowest temperature recorded was 18.0°F (−7.8°C) in 1989, in Canoga Park. The highest temperature recorded for Downtown Los Angeles was 112.0°F (44.4°C) on June 26, 1990, and the lowest temperature recorded was 28.0°F (−2.0°C) on January 4, 1949.[29]
Rain occurs mainly in the winter and spring months (February being the wettest month), with great annual variations in storm severity. Los Angeles averages 15 inches (385 mm) of precipitation per year. Tornado warnings are also issued, which are extraordinarily rare downtown, though waterspouts are seen during severe storms at beaches. Snow is extraordinarily rare in the city basin, but the mountainous slopes within city limits typically receive snow every year. The greatest snowfall recorded in downtown Los Angeles was 2.0 inches (5 cm) on January 15, 1932.[30]
[hide]Weather averages for Los Angeles, California (downtown)
Record high °F (°C)
90 (32)
92 (33)
93 (33)
96 (35)
99 (37)
104 (40)
103 (39)
102 (39)
110 (43)
104 (40)
96 (35)
92 (33)
110 (43)
Average high °F (°C)
65 (18)
66 (18)
68 (20)
70 (21)
73 (22)
76 (24)
84 (29)
82 (27)
81 (27)
77 (25)
73 (22)
68 (20)
73 (22)
Average low °F (°C)
48 (8)
49 (9)
50 (10)
53 (11)
56 (13)
58 (14)
63 (16)
63 (17)
61 (16)
58 (14)
53 (11)
50 (10)
55 (12)
Record low °F (°C)
28 (-2)
34 (1)
38 (3)
41 (5)
43 (6)
50 (10)
54 (12)
51 (10)
50 (10)
46 (8)
40 (4)
30 (-1)
28 (-2)
Precipitation inches (cm)
2.7 (6)
3.1 (7)
2.2 (5)
1.3 (3.3)
0.3 (0.8)
0.1 (0.2)
0 (0)
0 (0)
0.2 (0.5)
0.4 (1)
1.1 (2)
2.5 (6)
14 (35)
Source:[31] Jun 2007

[edit] Flora
The Los Angeles area is rich in native plant species due in part to a diversity in habitats, including beaches, wetlands, and mountains. The most prevalent botanical environment is coastal sage scrub, which covers the hillsides in combustible chaparral. Native plants include: California poppy, matilija poppy, toyon, Coast Live Oak, and giant wild rye grass. Many of these native species, such as the Los Angeles sunflower, have become so rare as to be considered endangered. Though they are not native to the area, the official tree of Los Angeles is the tropical Coral Tree and the official flower of Los Angeles is the Bird of Paradise, Strelitzia reginae.[32]

[edit] Environmental issues

A view of Los Angeles covered in smog from Mulholland Drive
Owing to geography, heavy reliance on automobiles, and the Los Angeles/Long Beach port complex, Los Angeles suffers from air pollution in the form of smog. The Los Angeles Basin and the San Fernando Valley are susceptible to atmospheric inversion, which holds in the exhausts from road vehicles, airplanes, locomotives, shipping, manufacturing, and other sources.[33] Unlike other large cities that rely on rain to clear smog, Los Angeles gets only 15 inches (381 mm) of rain each year. Pollution accumulates over multiple consecutive days. Issues of air quality in Los Angeles and other major cities led to the passage of early national environmental legislation, including the Clean Air Act. More recently, the state of California has led the nation in working to limit pollution by mandating low emissions vehicles.[34]
As a result, pollution levels have dropped in recent decades. The number of Stage 1 smog alerts has declined from over 100 per year in the 1970s to almost zero in the new millennium. Despite improvement, the 2006 annual report of the American Lung Association ranks the city as the most polluted in the country with short-term particle pollution and year-round particle pollution.[35][36] In addition, the groundwater is increasingly threatened by MTBE from gas stations and perchlorate from rocket fuel. With pollution still a significant problem, the city continues to take aggressive steps to improve air and water conditions.[37][38][edit] Cityscape
Main article: List of districts and neighborhoods of Los Angeles

Panorama of Los Angeles as viewed from Mulholland Drive. Left to right: Santa Ana Mountains, downtown, Hollywood (foreground), Wilshire Boulevard, Port of Los Angeles, Palos Verdes Peninsula, Santa Catalina Island, and LAX

Hollywood, a well-known district of Los Angeles, often mistaken as an independent city
The city is divided into many neighborhoods, many of which were towns that were annexed by the growing city. There are also several independent cities in and around Los Angeles, but they are popularly grouped with the city of Los Angeles, either due to being completely engulfed as enclaves by Los Angeles, or lying within its immediate vicinity. Generally, the city is divided into the following areas: Downtown Los Angeles, Northeast - including Highland Park and Eagle Rock areas, the Eastside, South Los Angeles (still often colloquially referred to as South Central by locals), the Harbor Area, Hollywood, Wilshire, the Westside, and the San Fernando and Crescenta Valleys.
Some well-known communities of Los Angeles include West Adams, Watts, Venice Beach, the Downtown Financial District, Los Feliz, Silver Lake, Hollywood, Hancock Park, Koreatown, Westwood and the more affluent areas of Bel Air, Benedict Canyon, Hollywood Hills, Pacific Palisades, and Brentwood.

[edit] Landmarks
Important landmarks in Los Angeles include Chinatown, Koreatown, Little Tokyo, Walt Disney Concert Hall, Kodak Theatre, Griffith Observatory, Getty Center, Los Angeles Memorial Coliseum, Los Angeles County Museum of Art, Grauman's Chinese Theatre, Hollywood Sign, Hollywood Boulevard, Capitol Records Tower, Los Angeles City Hall, Hollywood Bowl, Watts Towers, Staples Center, Dodger Stadium and La Placita Olvera/Olvera Street.

Walt Disney Concert Hall

Hollywood Sign

Grauman's Chinese Theatre

Griffith Observatory

Hollywood Bowl

Kodak Theatre

Capitol Records

Los Angeles Memorial Coliseum

[edit] Culture
Main article: Arts and culture of Los Angeles
See also: List of people from Los Angeles and List of songs about Los Angeles
The people of Los Angeles are known as Angelenos. Nighttime hot spots include places such as Downtown Los Angeles, Silver Lake, Hollywood, and West Hollywood, which is the home of the world-famous Sunset Strip.
Some well-known shopping areas are the Hollywood and Highland complex, the Beverly Center, Melrose Avenue, Robertson Boulevard, Rodeo Drive, 3rd St. Promenade in Santa Monica, The Grove, Westside Pavilion, The Promenade at Howard Hughes Center and Venice Boardwalk.

[edit] Media
Main article: Media in Los Angeles
See also: List of television shows set in Los Angeles
See also: List of films set in Los Angeles

The Fox Plaza in Century City, headquarters for 20th Century Fox, is a major financial district for West Los Angeles
The major daily newspaper in the area is The Los Angeles Times; La Opinión is the city's major Spanish-language paper. Investor's Business Daily is distributed from its L.A. corporate offices, which are headquartered in Playa Del Rey. There are also a number of smaller regional newspapers, alternative weeklies and magazines, including the Daily News (which focuses coverage on the San Fernando Valley), LA Weekly, Los Angeles CityBeat, L.A. Record (which focuses coverage on the music scene in the Greater Los Angeles area), Los Angeles magazine, Los Angeles Business Journal, Los Angeles Daily Journal (legal industry paper), The Hollywood Reporter and Variety (entertainment industry papers), and Los Angeles Downtown News. In addition to the English- and Spanish-language papers, numerous local periodicals serve immigrant communities in their native languages, including Armenian, Korean, Persian, Russian, Chinese and Japanese. Many cities adjacent to Los Angeles also have their own daily newspapers whose coverage and availability overlaps into certain Los Angeles neighborhoods. Examples include The Daily Breeze (serving the South Bay), and The Long Beach Press-Telegram.
The Los Angeles metropolitan area is served by a variety of local television stations and is the second-largest media market in North America, behind New York City.
Los Angeles and New York City are the only two media markets to have all seven VHF allocations possible assigned to them.[39]

Los Angeles Times Headquarters
The city's first television station (and the first in California) was KTLA, which began broadcasting on January 22, 1947. The major network-affiliated television stations in this city are KABC-TV 7 (ABC), KCBS 2 (CBS), KNBC 4 (NBC), KTTV 11 (FOX), KTLA 5 (The CW), and KCOP-TV 13 (MyNetworkTV), and KPXN 30 (i). There are also three PBS stations in the area, including KCET 28, KOCE-TV 50, and KLCS 58. World TV operates on two channels, KNET-LP 25 and KSFV-LP 6. There are also several Spanish-language television networks, including KMEX-TV 34 (Univision), KFTR 46 (TeleFutura), KVEA 52 (Telemundo), and KAZA 54 (Azteca América). KTBN 40 (Trinity Broadcasting Network), is a religious station in the area.
Several independent television stations also operate in the area, including KCAL-TV 9 (owned by CBS Corporation), KSCI 18 (focuses primarily on Asian language programming), KWHY-TV 22 (Spanish-language), KNLA-LP 27 (Spanish-language), KSMV-LP 33 (variety)—a low power relay of Ventura-based KJLA 57—KPAL-LP 38, KXLA 44, KDOC-TV 56 (classic programming and local sports), KJLA 57 (variety), and KRCA 62 (Spanish-language).
The city's first radio station was KNX, which began as an experimental station in 1920 and then became a commercially licensed station in December 1921.

[edit] Religion
The Roman Catholic Archbishop of Los Angeles leads the largest archdiocese in the country.[40] Roger Cardinal Mahony oversaw construction of the Cathedral of Our Lady of the Angels, completed in 2002 at the north end of downtown. Construction of the cathedral marked a coming of age of the Catholic, heavily Latino community. There are numerous Catholic churches and parishes throughout the city.

Built in 1956, the Los Angeles California Temple of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints is the second largest Mormon temple in the world
The Los Angeles California Temple, the second largest temple operated by The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, is on Santa Monica Boulevard in the Westwood district of Los Angeles. Dedicated in 1956, it was the first Mormon temple built in California and it was the largest in the world when completed.[41] The grounds includes a visitors' center open to the public, the Los Angeles Regional Family History Center, also open to the public, and the headquarters for the Los Angeles mission.
With 621,000 Jews in the metropolitan area (490,000 in city proper), the region has the second largest population of Jews in the United States.[42][43] Many synagogues of the Reform, Conservative, Orthodox, and Reconstructionist movements can be found throughout the city. Most are located in the San Fernando Valley and West Los Angeles. The area in West Los Angeles around Fairfax and Pico Boulevards contains a large number of Orthodox Jews. The Breed Street Shul in East Los Angeles, built in 1923, was the largest synagogue west of Chicago in its early decades.[44] (It is no longer a sacred space and is being converted to a museum and community center.)[45] The Kabbalah Centre, devoted to one line of Jewish mysticism, is also in the city.
The Azusa Street Revival (1906–1909) in Los Angeles was a key milestone in the history of the Pentecostal movement, not long after Christian Fundamentalism received its name and crucial promotion in Los Angeles. In 1909, the Bible Institute of Los Angeles (B.I.O.L.A., now Biola University)

The Cathedral of Our Lady of the Angels is the mother church of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Los Angeles
published and widely distributed a set of books called The Fundamentals, which presented a defense of the traditional conservative interpretation of the Bible. The term fundamentalism is derived from these books. Los Angeles is also a major hub of the house church Movement. Dr. Gabe Veas is one of the leaders of this group, pastoring the house church network known as Authentic LA.
In the 1920s, Aimee Semple McPherson established a thriving evangelical ministry, with her Angelus Temple in Echo Park open to both black and white church members of the Foursquare Church. Billy Graham became a celebrity during a successful revival campaign in Los Angeles in 1949. Herbert W. Armstrong's Worldwide Church of God used to have its headquarters in nearby Pasadena, now in Glendale. Until his death in 2005, Dr. Eugene Scott was based near downtown.
The Metropolitan Community Church, a fellowship of Christian congregations with a focus on outreach to gays and lesbians, was started in Los Angeles in 1968 by Troy D. Perry. Jack Chick, of "Chick Tracts," was born in Boyle Heights and lived in the area most of his life.
Because of Los Angeles' large multi-ethnic population, a wide variety of faiths are practiced, including Islam, Buddhism, Hinduism, Zoroastrianism, Sikhism, Bahá'í, various Eastern Orthodox Churches, Sufism and others.

Altar deities at a Hindu temple in Los Angeles, devoted to the god, Krishna
Immigrants from Asia for example, have formed a number of significant Buddhist congregations making the city home to the greatest variety of Buddhists in the world. Los Angeles currently has the largest Buddhist population in the United States. There are more than 300 Buddhist temples in Los Angeles.
Los Angeles has been a destination for Hindu Swamis and Gurus since as early as 1900, including Paramahansa Yogananda (1920). The Self-Realization Fellowship is headquartered in Hollywood and has a private park in Pacific Palisades. Maharishi Mahesh Yogi founded the Transcendental Meditation movement in Los Angeles in the late 1950s.
Los Angeles is the home to a number of Neopagans, as well as adherents of various other mystical religions. One wing of the Theosophist movement is centered in Los Angeles, and another is in neighboring Pasadena.
The Church of Scientology has had a presence in Los Angeles since it opened February 18, 1954. It has several churches and museums in the area, most notably the Celebrity Centre in Hollywood.

[edit] Sports
See also: Sports in Los Angeles
Los Angeles is the home of the Los Angeles Dodgers of Major League Baseball, the Los Angeles Kings of the National Hockey League, the Los Angeles Clippers and Los Angeles Lakers of the National Basketball Association, the Los Angeles Sparks of the WNBA, the Los Angeles Riptide of Major League Lacrosse, and the Los Angeles Avengers of the Arena Football League. Los Angeles is also home to the USC Trojans and the UCLA Bruins in the NCAA, both of which are Division I teams in the Pacific-10 Conference. UCLA has more NCAA national championships, all sports combined, than any other university in America. USC has the third most NCAA national championships, all sports combined, in the United States. Several more teams are in the greater Los Angeles media market: the Los Angeles Angels of Anaheim of Major League Baseball and the Anaheim Ducks of the National Hockey League are both based in nearby Anaheim; and the Los Angeles Galaxy and Club Deportivo Chivas USA of Major League Soccer are both based in neighboring Carson.

Dodger Stadium is the home of the Los Angeles Dodgers
There was a time when the Los Angeles media market boasted two NFL teams, the Rams and the Raiders. Both left the media market in 1995, with the Rams moving to St. Louis and the Raiders heading back to Oakland. Through the 2007-08 season there is no NFL franchise in the Los Angeles market, which is the second-largest city and television market in the United States.[46] Prior to 1995, the Rams called Memorial Coliseum (1946-1979) and Anaheim Stadium (1980-1994) home;[47] and the Raiders played their home games at Memorial Coliseum from 1982 to 1994.[48]
Since the franchise's departures the NFL as an organization, and individual NFL owners, have attempted to relocate a team to the city. Immediately following the 1995 NFL season, Seattle Seahawks owner Ken Behring went as far as packing up moving vans to start play in the Rose Bowl under a new team name and logo for the 1996 season. The State of Washington filed a law suit to successfully prevent the move.[49] In 2003, then NFL Commissioner Paul Tagliabue indicated L.A. would get a new expansion team, a thirty-third franchise, after the choice of Houston over L.A. in the 2002 league expansion round.[50] When the New Orleans Saints were displaced from the Superdome by Hurricane Katrina media outlets reported the NFL was planning to move the team to Los Angeles permanently.[51] Despite these efforts, and the failure to build a new stadium for an NFL team, L.A. is still expected to return to the league through expansion or relocation.
Los Angeles has twice played host to the summer Olympic Games, in 1932 and in 1984. When the tenth Olympic Games were hosted in 1932, the former 10th Street was renamed Olympic Blvd. The 1984 Summer Olympics inspired the creation of the Los Angeles Marathon, which has been held every year in March since 1986. Super Bowls I and VII were also held in the city as well as soccer's international World Cup in 1994. Los Angeles applied to represent the USOC in international bidding for the 2016 Summer Olympics, but lost to Chicago.
Beach volleyball and windsurfing were both invented in the area (though predecessors of both were invented in some form by Duke Kahanamoku in Hawaii). Venice, also known as Dogtown, is credited with being the birthplace of skateboarding and the place where roller skating first became popular. Area beaches are popular with parties, sunbathers, surfers, swimmers and barefooters, who have created their own subcultures.

Staples Center, a premier venue for sports and entertainment, is home to five professional sports teams
The Los Angeles area contains varied topography, notably the hills and mountains rising around the metropolis, making Los Angeles the only major city in the United States bisected by a mountain range; four mountain ranges extend into city boundaries. Thousands of miles of trails crisscross the city and neighboring areas, providing opportunities for exercise and wilderness access on foot, bike, or horse. Across the county a great variety of outdoor activities are available, such as skiing, rock climbing, placer mining, hang gliding, and windsurfing. Numerous outdoor clubs serve these sports, including the Angeles Chapter of the Sierra Club, which leads over 4,000 outings annually in the area.
Los Angeles also boasts a number of sports venues, including the Staples Center, a sports and entertainment complex that also hosts concerts and awards shows such as the Grammys. The Staples Center also serves as the home arena for the Los Angeles Clippers and Los Angeles Lakers of the NBA, the Los Angeles Sparks of the WNBA, the Los Angeles Kings of the NHL and the Avengers of the AFL.

[edit] Economy
Further information: Los Angeles County Economy
See also: Los Angeles Chamber of Commerce

Companies such as Ernst & Young, Aon, Manulife Financial, Paul, Hastings, Janofsky & Walker, City National Bank, and the Union Bank of California have offices in the Downtown Financial District
The economy of Los Angeles is driven by international trade, entertainment (television, motion pictures, recorded music), aerospace, technology, petroleum, fashion, apparel, and tourism. Los Angeles is also the largest manufacturing center in the United States.[52] The contiguous ports of Los Angeles and Long Beach together comprise the most significant port in North America. They are one of the most important ports in the world, and vital to trade within the Pacific Rim.[52] Other significant industries include media production, finance, telecommunications, law, health medicine, and transportation.
Until the mid-1990s, Los Angeles was home to many major financial institutions in the western United States. Mergers meant reporting to headquarters in other cities. For instance, First Interstate Bancorp merged with Wells Fargo in 1996, Great Western Bank merged with Washington Mutual in 1998, and Security Pacific Bank merged with Bank of America in 1992. Los Angeles was also home to the Pacific Exchange, until it closed in 2001.
The city has six major Fortune 500 companies, including aerospace contractor Northrop Grumman, energy company Occidental Petroleum, healthcare provider Health Net, homebuilding company KB Home, metals distributor Reliance Steel & Aluminum, and real estate group CB Richard Ellis.
The University of Southern California (USC) is the city's largest private sector employer.[53]

Companies such as Citigroup, Wells Fargo, KPMG, U.S. Bancorp, Bank of America, and Deloitte Touche Tohmatsu have offices on Downtown's Bunker Hill
Other companies headquartered in Los Angeles include 20th Century Fox, Latham & Watkins, Univision, Metro Interactive, LLC, Premier America, Gibson, Dunn & Crutcher, Guess?, O’Melveny & Myers; Paul, Hastings, Janofsky & Walker, Tokyopop, The Jim Henson Company, Paramount Pictures, Robinsons-May, Sunkist Growers, Incorporated, Fox Sports Net, Capital Group, 21st century Insurance and The Coffee Bean & Tea Leaf.
The metropolitan area contains the headquarters of companies who moved outside of the city to escape its taxes but keep the benefits of proximity.[54] For example, Los Angeles charges a gross receipts tax based on a percentage of business revenue, while many neighboring cities charge only small flat fees.[55] The companies below benefit from their proximity to Los Angeles, while at the same time avoiding the city's taxes (and other problems). Some of the major companies headquartered in the cities of Los Angeles county are Shakey's Pizza (Alhambra), Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences (Beverly Hills), City National Bank (Beverly Hills), Hilton Hotels (Beverly Hills), DIC Entertainment (Burbank), The Walt Disney Company (Fortune 500 – Burbank), Warner Bros. (Burbank), Countrywide Financial (Fortune 500 – Calabasas), THQ (Calabasas), Belkin (Compton), Sony Pictures Entertainment (parent of Columbia Pictures, located in Culver City), CaliforniaEl Segundo]]), DirecTV (El Segundo), Mattel (Fortune 500 – El Segundo), Unocal Corporation (Fortune 500 – El Segundo), DreamWorks (Glendale), Sea Launch (Long Beach), ICANN (Marina del Rey), Cunard Line (Santa Clarita), Princess Cruises (Santa Clarita), Activision (Santa Monica), and RAND (Santa Monica).
The L.A. area is also home to the U.S. headquarters of all but two of the major Asian automobile manufacturers. Further, virtually all the world's automakers have design and/or tech centers in the L.A. region. Downtown Los Angeles is also the home of the Los Angeles Convention Center which hosts many popular events.

[edit] Demographics
Historical populations


Est. 2006
The census[56] of 2000 recorded 3,694,820 people, 1,275,412 households, and 798,407 families residing